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Analysis of laser production and working principle





Light generation

1. Composition of matter

Any macroscopic matter that can be seen in the world is composed of micro particles such as atoms, molecules and ions. Among them, molecules are formed by covalent bonding of atoms, and ions are formed by ion bond checking of atoms, so in the final analysis, matter is made up of atoms

2. The structure of an atom

An atom is made up of a positive nucleus in the center of the atom and a negative electron outside the nucleus.

According to quantum theory, electrons in the same atom move work in discontinuous orbits and can move in different orbits, just as a car can drive fast on a highway and slow down in urban areas.

3. The luminescence of atoms

The excited atom will not stay in the high energy level for a long time, it will spontaneously jump to the low-level ground state, and release its extra energy.

Characteristics of light

1. Wave particle duality

Light is a very high frequency electromagnetic wave, which has the general characteristics of waves and particles in physical concepts. For short, it has wave particle duality.

The wave and particle properties of light are two aspects of the nature of light under different conditions.

2. The particle embodiment of light

Light has a very strong particle property in the high frequency or short wave region. The intensity of particle flow can be obtained by the interaction between light and other substances without phase relationship.

Laser production

Atoms in excited states cannot stay at high energy level for a long time. Even if there is no external effect, it will spontaneously transition from high energy level to low energy level and radiate a photon. Because the spontaneous emission of atoms is completely independent, different atoms emit photons in different directions. In a flash, there are photons propagating in all directions in the working substance. Assuming that the working substance has a cylindrical shape, some of these spontaneous emission photons must propagate along the direction of the central axis, and most of them have an included angle with the central axis. The latter kind of 'divorced' photons quickly escape from the side of the working material, which has little impact on the laser production; when the former kind of 'homocentric' photons move along the central axis of the working material, they will cause the stimulated radiation of high-energy atoms in the path, and generate photons with the same frequency, phase and propagation in the same direction. The photon 'works hand in hand' with the photon that induced it, stimulating other atoms to radiate the same photons as them. In this way, the number of photons from 1 to 2, from 2 to 4 Grow exponentially at an amazing rate. What's more, because all these photons are produced by stimulated radiation step by step, they all have the same frequency, the same initial phase, the same polarization state, and propagate in the same direction.

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